Pentecost (Whitsunday)

Catholic Encyclopedia - Internet Version


A feast of the universal Church which commemorates the Descent of the Holy Ghost upon the Apostles, fifty days after the Resurrection of Christ, on the ancient Jewish festival called the "feast of weeks" or Pentecost (Exodus 34:22; Deuteronomy 16:10). Whitsunday is so called from the white garments which were worn by those who were baptized during the vigil; Pentecost ("Pfingsten" in German), is the Greek for "the fiftieth" (day after Easter).

Whitsunday, as a Christian feast, dates back to the first century, although there is no evidence that it was observed, as there is in the case of Easter; the passage in I Corinthians (16:8) probably refers to the Jewish feast. This is not surprising, for the feast, originally of only one day's duration, fell on a Sunday; besides it was so closely bound up with Easter that it appears to be not much more than the termination of Paschal tide. That Whitsunday belongs to the Apostolic times is stated in the seventh of the (interpolated) fragments attributed to St. Irenśus. In Tertullian (De bapt., xix) the festival appears as already well established. The Gallic pilgrim gives a detailed account of the solemn manner in which it was observed at Jerusalem ("Peregrin. Silviś", ed. Geyer, iv). The Apostolic Constitutions (V, xx, 17) say that Pentecost lasts one week, but in the West it was not kept with an octave until at quite a late date. It appears from Berno of Reichenau (d. 1048) that it was a debatable point in his time whether Whitsunday ought to have an octave. At present it is of equal rank with Easter Sunday. During the vigil formerly the catechumens who remained from Easter were baptized, consequently the ceremonies on Saturday are similar to those on Holy Saturday.

The office of Pentecost has only one Nocturn during the entire week. At Terce the "Veni Creator" is sung instead of the usual hymn, because at the third hour the Holy Ghost descended. The Mass has a Sequence, "Veni Sancte Spiritus" the authorship of which by some is ascribed to King Robert of France. The colour of the vestments is red, symbolic of the love of the Holy Ghost or of the tongues of fire. Formerly the law courts did not sit during the entire week, and servile work was forbidden. A Council of Constance (1094) limited this prohibition to the first three days of the week. The Sabbath rest of Tuesday was abolished in 1771, and in many missionary territories also that of Monday; the latter was abrogated for the entire Church by Pius X in 1911. Still, as at Easter, the liturgical rank of Monday and Tuesday of Pentecost week is a Double of the First Class.

In Italy it was customary to scatter rose leaves from the ceiling of the churches to recall the miracle of the fiery tongues; hence in Sicily and elsewhere in Italy Whitsunday is called Pascha rosatum. The Italian name Pascha rossa comes from the red colours of the vestments used on Whitsunday. In France it was customary to blow trumpets during Divine service, to recall the sound of the mighty wind which accompanied the Descent of the Holy Ghost. In England the gentry amused themselves with horse races. The Whitsun Ales or merrymakings are almost wholly obsolete in England. At these ales the Whitsun plays were performed. At Vespers of Pentecost in the Oriental Churches the extraordinary service of genuflexion, accompanied by long poetical prayers and psalms, takes place. (Cf. Maltzew, "Fasten-und Blumen Triodion", p. 898 where the entire Greco-Russian service is given; cf. also Baumstark, "Jacobit. Fest brevier", p. 255.) On Pentecost the Russians carry flowers and green branches in their hands.

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Comments: Catholics and Protestants keep Pentecost (Whitsunday). Pentecost is one of Godís seven annual Holy Days and is ordained in Leviticus 23:15-16 as a holy convocation. Leviticus 23 lists all of Godís seven annual Holy Days and it even includes the seventh day Sabbath at the beginning of the list.

In the New Testament Jesusí disciples continued to keep all of Godís Holy Days after Jesusí resurrection. They kept Pentecost as recorded in the book of Acts: "When the Day of Pentecost had fully come, they were all with one accord in one place" (Acts 2:1). The entire second chapter of Acts tells about what happened on that first Pentecost after Jesus was crucified, buried and was resurrected.

Jesusí disciples and the New Testament Church kept the Feast of Tabernacles as recorded in Acts 18:21. Acts 20:16 shows the apostle Paul hurrying to keep Pentecost in Jerusalem. This was about 25 years after Jesusí crucifixion and resurrection.

1 Corinthians 5:7-8 is a direct command from the apostle Paul for New Testament Christians to keep the Passover and the Feast of Unleavened Bread.

In Acts 27:9 Luke is recording the travels of the apostle Paul and mentions the word "fast" which refers to the "Day of Atonement". This annual Sabbath was called a "fast" because this was a day of fasting, a day of going without food and water. Luke wrote the book of Acts over 30 years after Jesusí crucifixion.

Letís close with a question: Since Catholics and Protestants keep Pentecost which is one of Godís seven annual Holy Days, why donít they keep the other six of Godís seven annual Holy Days?

If you would like to learn more about Godís Holy Days, request our free booklet: "Godís Holy Days" and our article: "The Gospel of John and Godís Holy Days." and our free audio tape: "Are the Holy Days Important?"

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God's Holy Days